Tensile Test Setup for Textiles

Tensile testing of textiles applies to both natural and manmade materials, such as cotton, polyester, nylon, carbon, graphite, and glass. It also involves the testing of these materials in various forms, including single strands, threads, yarns, webbing, braided material, and woven fabrics. An important consideration with tensile testing of flexible materials, like textiles, is the movement of grips and clamping fixtures. When testing webbing or fabric type products, it is important to have free rotation at one of the grip mounts to ensure the grip are in the plane of the textile during the test. The majority of textile fabric tensile testing is performed as either a grab test, in an effort to eliminate edge effects, or a strip test, including edge effects. The grab test clamps a fabric sample in the center of the sample width using jaws smaller than the sample width. The strip test clamps a strip of fabric using jaws wider than the sample width. Both tests grip the specimen inside the ends of the sample length. ASTM and ISO specify test methods and requirements for the testing of textile materials. Due to the wide variety of textiles, a single tensile test method would not be able to address all the variations needed to properly test different textiles. Popular ASTM tensile testing standards for textiles are ASTM D751 for coated fabrics, ASTM D1683 for woven fabric seam failure, ASTM D4964 for elongation of elastic fabrics, ASTM D5034 for breaking strength of textile fabrics, ASTM D5035 for breaking force of textile fabrics, ASTM D6775 for breaking strength of webbing and braided materials, and ASTM D7269 for testing aramid or nylon yarns. Machines for textile tensile testing are typically low force, high elongation, constant rate of elongation or load table-top systems. ASTM D76 specifies the requirements of the most widely used tensile test machines, including constant rate of extension (CRE), constant rate of force and loading (CRL) machines. Test grips and fixtures must be determined by the specific type of textile being tested and, if the material is tested to a testing standard, the grip requirements will be described in the standard

Applicable Testing Standards

Recommended Test Machine

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