ASTM F394 covers the determination of the biaxial flexure strength (modulus of rupture) of thin ceramic substrates and is applicable to pecimens in the as-fired condition or to test pieces prepared to have a certain thickness or surface finish. The test specimen, a thin circular disk, rests on three symmetrically spaced points near its periphery. It is bent in a cupping fashion by the application of force to the center of the disk through a cylindrical ram. The force is applied to the ram at a prescribed constant rate in a compression test machine until the specimen breaks. The breaking load, the dimensions and elastic constants of the specimen, and the radii of the support and load are used to compute the maximum tensile stress which is at the center of the tension (convex) surface.

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