Planar Biaxial Test
A planar biaxial test is designed to apply stress to a flat specimen in two directions perpendicular to one another. This is accomplished by placing the specimen into a specially configured test machine which has the ability to clamp the specimen along each of its four sides. The machine features (two or) four actuators that apply their load to the sample along two primary axes.
Purpose of planar biaxial testing:
Generally the purpose of this test is to determine the mechanical properties of a material that experiences forces along two of its axis. The stresses applied to a sample during a planar biaxial test may represent the stresses the material experience during service conditions. A planar biaxial test is better than a uniaxial test if the material experiences stress in complex multiaxial configurations during their service life. The biaxial tensile strength, compression strength, flexural strength and fracture toughness may all be determined for a material using a planar biaxial test.
Types of planar biaxial tests:
A planar biaxial test has only one common configuration; however, the way in which the test sample is stressed in this configuration may include any and all uniaxial tests that can be performed on the same sample. To apply a biaxial load to a material requires that it be formed into a thin rectangle or cruciform so that the applied loads are perpendicular to one another. The load applied to the sample may use one or more of the following stress methods: tension, compression, flexure, shear, fracture toughness, and fatigue.
Types of materials used in planar biaxial tests:
The most common planar biaxial tests are performed upon soft tissues, flexible materials and rigid substrates. Soft biological tissue tests are common in the biomedical industry. The types of flexible and rigid materials that are tested using these tests include but are not limited to plastics, foam, film, sheeting, metals, composites and ceramics.
Selected Test Standards
- Planar Biaxial Tester for Biological Soft Tissues
- Planar Biaxial Tension of Rubber Sheet
- Biaxial Tension Tests of Sheet Metal
- Biaxial fracture toughness and crack growth tests of metal
- Planar Biaxial Tests of collagenous soft biological tissues
- Metals Crack Growth Planar Biaxial Mode
- Multi-Axial Stress States with Cruciform Metal Specimens